怎样修改debian ISO ?

从官方下载的debianISO,安装后总要做一些基础工作; 即使LiveISO,也是要搞一下中文输入法。

我想对ISO做一些修改,比如删除一个预装的游戏,设置好中文输入法等,然后重新制作成LiveISO文件,这样cp到u盘里就能启动使用。

这样的操作,需要什么流程和工具?Debian官方有推荐这一类工具么?

百度到这个,zh_CN/Debootstrap - Debian Wiki

现场体验版live iso自带了输入法,启动的时候换中文问环境就行了。

Debian Wiki将这种工作称为Debian PureBlends,该页面建议使用软件包debian-cd构建debian ISO,并链接了一个指南,这个指南实质上是关于Debian Live ISO的。
另外的资源在Debian Installer页面,该页面指出可以使用软件包simple-cdd来创建自定义Debian Installer ISO,相关的wiki页面也存在。还存在子页面来说明手动构建Debian Installer ISO的步骤。子页面提供了定制Debian Installer ISO的说明。综合各页面的信息,似乎debian-cdsimple-cdd适用于更复杂的目的。
综合来看,修改Debian ISO是一个复杂的过程。除了上面列出的那些wiki给出的信息,还应当阅读有关工具的文档。不幸的是,部分wiki的内容已经过时了,最好以软件包文档的描述为准。

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Debootsrap能够帮助安装Debian系统,所以它能够帮助完成安装程序,但是它本身不是构建Debian ISO的工具,它被Debian Installer ISO中的安装程序所使用。

哇,你这个回复详细得很,够我研究一阵子了 :+1:

没注意到,我还以为没有,我试下~

我尝试了live-buster和live-testing,启动时在菜单中选择简体中文,系统启动后创建一个文本文件,然后用ctrl+空格键或者super+空格键,都没办法切换到中文输入法,是操作有问题么?

我的是kde桌面

我试了一下buster-live-kde,启动后确实有输入法;

buster-live-gnome没有现成的中文输入法,不知道是有但我不会切换,还是就没有需要自己安装~

去系统设置,语言选项看下输入法,如果能选中文应该有

我看过了,在region & Language 是输入源,只有英语(美国)一项,没有中文或者汉语,需要添加~

kde live 启动电脑后,直接就有现成的中文输入法可以使用;而gnome live 启动电脑后,没有现成的中文输入法可以使用;

造成这个区别的原因,就是在Debian PureBlends工作过程中,kde live的创建者对输入法部分做了一些中文相关的工作,而gnome live 的创建者没做相关工作,这样理解对么?

直观上讲是没有错,但是恐怕Debian Live团队不是这么运作的……从Debian Live文档:

No package configuration of the live system
In this phase we will not ship or install sample or alternative configurations. All packages are used in their default configuration as they are after a regular installation of Debian.
Whenever we need a different default configuration, we will do that in coordination with its package maintainer in Debian.
A system for configuring packages is provided using debconf allowing custom configured packages to be installed in your custom produced live system images, but for the prebuilt live images we choose to leave packages in their default configuration, unless absolutely necessary in order to work in the live environment. Wherever possible, we prefer to adapt packages within the Debian archive to work better in a live system versus making changes to the live toolchain or prebuilt image configurations. For more information, please see Customization overview.

文档中关于自定义语言环境和语言的部分:

When the live system boots, language is involved in two steps:

  • the locale generation
  • setting the keyboard configuration

此外,这还涉及到软件包安装:

Desktop and language tasks are special cases that need some extra planning and configuration. Live images are different from Debian Installer images in this respect. In the Debian Installer, if the medium was prepared for a particular desktop environment flavour, the corresponding task will be automatically installed. Thus, there are internal gnome-desktop, kde-desktop, lxde-desktop and xfce-desktop tasks, none of which are offered in tasksel’s menu. Likewise, there are no menu entries for tasks for languages, but the user’s language choice during the install influences the selection of corresponding language tasks.
When developing a desktop live image, the image typically boots directly to a working desktop, the choices of both desktop and default language having been made at build time, not at run time as in the case of the Debian Installer. That’s not to say that a live image couldn’t be built to support multiple desktops or multiple languages and offer the user a choice, but that is not live-build’s default behaviour.
Because there is no provision made automatically for language tasks, which include such things as language-specific fonts and input-method packages, if you want them, you need to specify them in your configuration. For example, a GNOME desktop image containing support for German might include these task metapackages:

$ lb config
$ echo "task-gnome-desktop task-laptop" >> config/package-lists/my.list.chroot
$ echo "task-german task-german-desktop task-german-gnome-desktop" >> config/package-lists/my.list.chroot

因此,应当说这主要是Debian的i18n团队的责任。